Upstream Production

Remediation Technology for Conventional Oil and Gas Wells and Unconventional Shale Oil Wells

Production Enhancement

Falling well production beyond anticipated decline is widespread in oilfield operations and is influenced by numerous factors, such as: production method used; production practices employed, including chemical treatment programs; well characteristics; and inherent
hydrocarbon components. These factors can work in concert to create a chain reaction of costly damage in the near-wellbore area, caused by:

  • Changes in reservoir wettability
  • Paraffin, asphaltene and
    resin-related deposition
  • Mineral scaling
  • Water blockage
  • Emulsion blockage

Near-wellbore area problems that affect deposition of paraffin and asphaltenes have origins as far back as drilling and completion operations. Traditional skin-damage remediation techniques include acidizing, fracturing, hot oiling, and jet-washing.

Causes of
Paraffin Deposition
Causes of
Asphaltene Deposition
Natural
  • Cold surface temperatures
  • Gas expansion, separation from crude oil
  • Geological temperature gradient
  • Underground aquifers
  • Decreased pressure in reservoirs, production tubing, flowlines, and processes
  • Temperature changes
  • High difference between reservoir pressure and oil bubble point
Production Operations
  • Temperature reduction during gas lift or water injection
  • Hot oiling to treat tubing/casing can cause formation damage
  • Acid stimulation and hydraulic fracturing
  • Solvent loss during processing of oil
  • Mixing of oil with injected solvent
  • Drilling, acid stimulation and hydraulic fracturing
  • Changes in temperature, pressure drop and electrokinetic effect
  • High gas flow across chokes; ESPs
  • Injection of hydrocarbon gases or carbon dioxide for
    improved oil recovery
  • Multi-Flow Tri-Phase Chemistry
  • Tri-Phase Squeeze
  • HCD Salt Reducer Chemistry
  • HCD Microphase Microbial Blend

Multi-Flow Tri-Phase chemistry is a small, carbon-based, molecule used for near-wellbore stimulation that surpasses traditional chemical treatments for paraffin and asphaltene deposition. The specially engineered chemistry uses simple electron sharing to position itself between aggregated hydrocarbon molecules to reduce molecular attractive forces. This results in a shift in hydrocarbon physical state from solid to liquid. Paraffin, asphaltene, and resinous-related deposits are liquefied in situ, without the need for heat or other additives.

Hydrocarbon Dynamics’ PhaseShift Tri-Phase Squeeze™ treatment for near-wellbore stimulation effectively treats near-wellbore area damage. The Tri-Phase Squeeze™ treatment employs two chemical formulations and a microbial blend: Multi-Flow Tri-Phase chemistry; HCD Salt Reducer chemistry; and HCD MicroPhase microbial blend. This treatment program reverses formation damage and results in increased field recovery and economics through:

  • Increased production of often higher-quality hydrocarbons
  • Higher recovery rates
  • Increased operational efficiency from lower operating costs
  • Prolonged field lifetime

Greater hydrocarbon flow, operational efficiency, and field economics are accomplished through:

  • Near-wellbore damage removal by:
    • Liquefying paraffin and asphaltene deposits
    • Formation water-wetting
    • Removing inorganic scale
    • Breaking tight oil-in-water emulsions
  • Improvement in well injectivity
  • Crude oil viscosity reduction
  • Crude oil API gravity increase
  • Decrease in under-deposit corrosion

The three components of the Tri-Phase Squeeze treatment program are injected into the reservoir in specific order. Hydrocarbon Dynamics also supplies treatment protocols. Company personnel can guide the treatment, if appropriate, to ensure optimal outcomes.

Inorganic salts are removed from the damaged reservoir area through organic chelation by HCD Salt Reducer chemistry. This formulation works through several processes that complex and buffer mineral salt ions, including cations such as sodium, bonding them to organic molecules. The result is restored formation porosity and permeability and increased hydrocarbon flow.
Hydrocarbon Dynamics offers a dry blend of 21 American Type Culture Collection (ATTC)-approved, low exopolysaccharide-producing bacteria with exceptional ability to degrade a broad spectrum of hydrocarbons in situ. Treatment with HCD MicroPhase microbial blend is vital to well stimulation longevity by extending initial hydrocarbon flow by six to eight months. The amount of metabolic carbon dioxide released is minimal and makes no significant impact on bulk solution pH.

Case Study

PhaseShift Tri-Phase Squeeze™ Treatment Extended Asset Life and Revenue for Western Canada Operator with 149% Average Increased Oilfield Production

Production from four wells was significantly reduced from formation damage by paraffin, asphaltene,and scale deposition.

PhaseShift Tri-Phase Squeeze treatment was performed on each well to eliminate formation damage and restore production rates.

  • Daily oil production increased 64–240% with an average increase of 149% across all wells.
  • Production increases were sustained for 240 days of subsequent monitoring.
  • No paraffin or asphaltene pipeline deposition occurred for at least six months after treatment.
  • Increased revenue and field economics
  • Increased operational efficiency from fewer
    deposit-related maintenance issues

PhaseShift Brochure

Full details on our PhaseShift Technology

Flow Assurance

Regain Operational Efficiency through Superior Well Cleanouts

Buildup of paraffin wax, asphaltenes, and scale can have a devastating effect on oil and gas production, significantly reducing or even shutting it down. If left untreated, this buildup can have a severe impact on the entire hydrocarbon recovery and transfer system, including perforations, wellbore, production tubing, transfer lines, processing equipment, and storage tanks.

Hydrocarbon Dynamics employs its patented Total System Treatment Method (TSTM) for well cleanup and remediation of paraffin, asphaltenes, and viscous oil, as well as mineral scale. TSTM effectively cleans the wellbore and production tubing along with all system-associated equipment. An added bonus is its ability to break emulsions, so when leaving the production facility, crude oil BS&W specifications are met without requiring heat or chemical addition. By cleaning the production system so effectively, corrosion rates are typically also reduced, injection operations improved, and lift costs decreased. All these capabilities increase production and operational efficiency through significant time and cost savings.

TSTM is a flexible program, depending on the cause of wellbore damage, and employs up to two chemical technologies, PhaseShift HCD Multi-Flow® technology and HCD Scale Reducer chemistry.

PhaseShift HCD Multi-Flow Technology Versus Alternative Industry Methods
  • HCD Multi-Flow Technology

HCD Multi-Flow technology for well cleanouts and deposit control is a more effective chemical treatment than traditional methods used to remove damaging hydrocarbon-based deposits from production system surfaces. It exhibits superior performance by reliquefying deposits from a solid to a liquid state and by inhibiting future deposition.

Following a well cleanout using HCD Multi-Flow technology with a small maintenance dosage will keep production tubing and flowlines clean and eliminate the need for solvent soaks and hot oiling, which can often cause formation damage. Common chemicals used are typically toxic to the environment and are safety hazards. In contrast, in most countries, HCD Multi-Flow chemistry is considered environmentally safe, non-toxic and significantly more cost effective than competitive products.

Case Study

Western Canada Oilfield Operator Reduced OPEX, Increased Production, and Simplified Operations Applying Hydrocarbon Dynamic’s Total System Treatment Method (TSTM) for Paraffin Control

Paraffin deposition led to considerable production tubing and flowline damage at a Western Canada oilfield production operation. The existing, poorly performing paraffin inhibition program forced the operator to use numerous ancillary treatment techniques just to maintain production. This increased operating costs, safety and environmental risks, and the complexity of production operations. The paraffin inhibition program consisted of:

  • Continuous injection of 1,000-1,500 ppm of a pour point depressant.
  • Hot oiling every four-to-six weeks.
  • Solvent soaking every two-to-four weeks.
  • Pigging every two days.

Hydrocarbon Dynamics applied its TSTM approach using a continuous injection of 250 ppm PhaseShift HCD Multi-Flow® technology to treat numerous wells to eliminate the formation of damaging paraffin wax deposits in the production tubing and flowlines and to keep oil production flowing. The HCD Multi-Flow product’s ultra-low pour point did not require a changeout to a winterized version like the incumbent supplier’s chemical treatment.

  • Increased oil production by an average of 12% across all wells
  • Decreased OPEX costs projected to be greater than $0.50/ BOE (not including the production increase)
  • Significantly reduced the quantity of chemical needed to control paraffin deposition (250 ppm vs. 1,000-1,500 ppm)
  • Ended the need for demulsifier chemical treatment
  • Eliminated the need for hot oiling
  • Extended the time between solvent soaks
  • Reduced pigging frequency with customer acknowledging the pigs had never looked cleaner
  • Increased revenue from production enhancement
  • Reduced operating expenses
  • Improved operational efficiency by
    • reducing the complexity of paraffin control
    • significantly lowering the amount of chemical handling
      and management
    • eliminating the need for a winterized product version
  • Reduced safety and environmental risks through decreased chemical handling and organic nature of product